Emerging Research & Technology


A note on COVID-19:

In the face of COVID-19, the way people travel has seen various changes. The pandemic will have long-term impacts on transportation choices that governmental agencies and policymakers will need to navigate carefully. Most cities have resumed micromobility services, and some launched new BikeShare programs within the past year. The following resources will continue to be helpful when considering the safety of shared bikes, e-bikes and e-scooters as a mobility option.

This page provides information on emerging micromobility research, publications, and technology. With a high influx of micromobility in a short amount of time, research on how best to regulate these vehicles are critical for both vendors and city authorities for the success and continued use of micromobility. This section presents a selection of research and technology, including geofencing and sidewalk detection. Note that this is not an exhaustive list of the research topics regarding micromobility, and is frequently updated.

Emerging Research & Technology

Snapshot Title      Author Date Description
Shared Scooter Parking: The Role of Parking Density and Land Use in Compliance and Demand Sian Meng, Anne Brown, Nicholas Klein, Calvin Thigpen, Brandon Haydu   April, 2024  How much shared scooter parking is needed to meet demand and reduce noncompliant parking? Drawing on Lime data from a dozen cities in the US and Europe, this report provides three key planning and policy recommendations for cities to consider as they work to integrate scooters into the overall transportation system. Access the full study.
Consumer purchase response to e-bike incentives: Results from a nationwide stated preference study Luke R. Jones, Cameron Bennett, John H. MacArthur, Christopher R. Cherry April, 2024 Electric bike (e-bike) incentives are gaining popularity to increase ownership of e-bikes, with the goal of increased mobility while reducing emissions. This study is among the first to experimentally analyze the prospective purchase behavior of e-bike consumers to assess price sensitivity, behavioral response to incentives, and consumer value of e-bike attributes. Access the full study.
Shared micromobility as a first- and last-mile transit solution? Spatiotemporal insights from a novel dataset January, 2024 The first- and last-mile (FM/LM) problem is a major deterrent to public transit use. With the rise of shared micromobility options such as shared e-scooters in recent years, there is a growing interest in understanding their potential to serve as a last-mile transit solution. However, empirical data regarding the integrated use of shared micromobility and public transit have been limited so far. As a result, much is unknown regarding the spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of shared micromobility trips serving as an FM/LM connection to transit. This paper addresses these knowledge gaps by leveraging a novel dataset (i.e., the Spin post-ride survey dataset) that records thousands of transit-connecting shared e-scooter trips in Washington DC. Access the full study.
Cover of the Lime report Tackling the Gender 'Pedal Gap' with a woman in a trench coat riding a Lime bike Tackling the Gender 'Pedal Gap': Women's Night Safety Report 2023 Opinium, Lime December, 2023 It is well known that women are less likely to cycle than men in the UK, with men making almost three times as many cycling trips compared to women (UK Government, 2022). In this report we set out to understand the extent of this gender disparity and identify potential solutions through the analysis of an external poll of the general public in the UK, surveys of Lime riders in the UK, and qualitative case studies from Lime riders in the UK. It produced findings concerning the barriers women face to cycling, in particular regarding travelling alone at nighttime, as well as identifying clear solutions to tackle the gender ‘pedal gap’ and help make cycling safer and more accessible. Access the full report.
How Are E-Scooter Speed-Limiter Settings Associated with User Behavior? Observed Speeds and Road, Sidewalk, and Bike Lane Use in Austin, TX, and Washington, D.C. Jessica B. Cicchino, Neil K. Chaudhary, and Mark G. Solomon  December, 2023 Many cities limit the top speeds of shared e-scooters, but little is known about how these policies affect user behavior. This study measured speeds and observed use of roads, sidewalks, and bike lanes for 2,004 e-scooter riders in Washington, D.C., where shared e-scooters were equipped with speed governors that limited their speed to 10 mph, and Austin, TX, where the limit was 20 mph.Future refinements to technology to identify sidewalk riding more accurately could potentially allow maximum e-scooter speeds to be adjusted to mix with pedestrians on sidewalks and cyclists in bike lanes. Access the full report.
Cover of the CPSC September 2023 Report Micromobility Products-Related Deaths, Injuries, and Hazard Patterns: 2017-2022 James Tark, Directorate for Epidemiology Division of Hazard Analysis, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission September, 2023 E-scooters, e-bikes, and hoverboards have grown in popularity among Americans in recent years, as a way to get to and from work, school or for fun. Our latest report finds that emergency room-treated injuries and deaths with these products are also increasing. In light of the spike in injuries, CPSC reminds consumers to use caution and safety with these devices.
Cover page of the E-Scooter report with details in dark orange on a white background E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Transportation Research Board; Laura Sandt; Dan Gelinne; Alyson West; Kathrine J. Harmon; Kristin Blank; Meg Bryson; Tabitha Combs; Christopher R. Cherry; Emma Sexton; Nitesh Shah; Yi Wen; Mojdeh Azad; Ashkan Neshagarian; Regina Clewlow; Stephanie Seki; Charles T. Brown; Rebecca Sanders August, 2023 Electric scooter (or e-scooter) usage continues to expand worldwide with shared, rented, and privately owned devices. While many communities with e-scooter sharing programs have observed social, health, economic, and environmental benefits of enhanced multimodal travel and having more alternatives to vehicle use, these effects are often accompanied by real and perceived safety challenges. Access the full guide.
Cover page of the E-Scooter Toolbox with details in dark orange text on a white backgroiund E-Scooter Safety Toolbox Laura Sandt, Alyson West, Katherine J. Harmon, Kristin Blank, Christopher R. Cherry, Charles T. Brown, Rebecca Sanders; Transportation Research Board; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine August, 2023 BTSCRP Research Report 9: E-Scooter Safety Toolbox, from TRB's Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program, presents findings from a multiyear research effort that sought to build on existing research to date, identify key gaps in knowledge and data related to e-scooter behavioral safety, and develop evidence-based guidelines that can enhance the coordination of behavioral safety programs and countermeasures with a broader toolbox of approaches to improve safety for all road users. Access the toolbox.
Cover of the Journal of Transport Geography Exploring key spatial determinants for mobility hub placement based on micromobility ridership Daniela Arias-Molinares, Yihan Xu, Benjamin Buttner, David Duran-Rodas June 2023 Over the past decade, cities have witnessed a surge in micromobility services that offer flexible mobility options for citizens on an as-needed basis, such as for covering the first/last mile connection of their trips. Although these services have known benefits, including reduced CO2 emissions and less public space required for parking, there is still insufficient understanding of their common dynamics and usage, which can support decision-making in the quest for allocating new mobility infrastructure, like mobility hubs. In this paper, we propose a methodology to identify potential mobility hub locations based on the common associated spatial factors with the ridership of different micromobility services (station-based bike-sharing, dockless moped-style scooter-sharing and scooter-sharing services) in Madrid, Spain. Read the paper.
Cover page of the IIHS E-Scooter Study with details in black text on a white background How are e-scooter speed limiter settings associated with user behavior? Observed speeds and road, sidewalk, and bike lane use in Austin, TX, and Washington, DC Cicchino, Jessica B. / Chaudhary, Neil K. / Solomon, Mark G. May 2023 Many cities limit the top speeds of shared e-scooters, but little is known about how these policies affect user behavior. This study measured speeds and observed use of roads, sidewalks, and bike lanes for 2,004 e-scooter riders in Washington, DC, where shared e-scooters were equipped with governors that limited their speed to 10 mph, and Austin, TX, where the limit was 20 mph. Access the full study.
 How Micromobility and Realistic Car Travel Times Impact Accessibility Analyses" in white text All Possible Commutes: How Micromobility and Realistic Car Travel Times Impact Accessibility Analyses Hussein Mahfouz, Adham Kalila, Bishoy Kelleny, and Abdelrahman Melegy

All Possible Commutes: How Micromobility and Realistic Car Travel Times Impact Accessibility Analyses is a working paper from NUMO and Transport for Cairo that introduces an improved method for accessibility analysis that incorporates the availability of shared micromobility as well as realistic car travel times. The paper compares the results of case studies of four cities —  Cairo, Mexico City, Minneapolis-Saint Paul and the San Francisco Bay Area — where accessibility analyses were conducted with and without these methodological improvements. The methods developed for this paper provide more realistic estimates of access to destinations, as well as inform more precise and responsive planning and policy decisions. Read more here. 

Logo on white background with National Center for Sustainable Transportation in dark blue to the right and a square with a green inner circle and light orange, blue and green swirls around it to the left American Micromobility Panel: Part 1 Fitch-Polse, D. T, Mohiuddin, H., Fukushige, T., Darr, J., & Agarwal, S.

This report presents preliminary findings from the American Micromobility Panel, the largest study of shared micromobility services in the United States incorporating riders from multiple major operators. Micromobility services (bike-share and scooter-share) have recently emerged in many U.S. cities. Given that the substitution of bicycling, scooting, and other small vehicle travel for car travel will help cities reach numerous planning goals (e.g., accessibility, emissions, climate, health, equity, etc.), there is a need for understanding the effects of these mobility services. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of micromobility services on travel behavior and outcomes such as mode shift, car ownership, access, equity, safety, and physical activity. Read the full report.

The Micromobility Global Incentives and Subsidy Tracker for Small Electric Vehicles Micromobility Industries March, 2023 Micromobility Industries and Ride Review have launched a groundbreaking new tool to help individuals looking to purchase small electric vehicles such as e-bikes, mopeds, scooters, and more. The Micromobility Global Incentives and Subsidy Tracker is a first of its kind database of government incentives and subsidies available for small electric vehicles worldwide. Learn more here.
Figure 3 from the article showing mode catchment areas, under current conditions Assessing the perception of E-scooters as a practical and equitable first-mile/last-mile solution Michael McQueen, Kelly J. Clifton November, 2022 E-scooters have disrupted and altered the urban mobility landscape. During their introductory period, they have been commonly touted as part of a larger micromobility solution that erases equity barriers and solves the first-mile/last-mile problem. However, few studies in the nascent e-scooter literature have considered these claims. Read the full article.
Maps showing study area locations in Philadelphia, Brooklyn, and Chicago Factors influencing bike share among underserved populations: Evidence from three U.S. cities Jennifer Dill, Jiahui Ma, Nathan McNeil, Joseph Broach, John MacArthur November, 2022

There is evidence that lower-income and people of color (POC) in the U.S. do not use bike share as much as higher-income and white people. Using data from residents living near stations in New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia, our analysis examines reasons for these disparities. Read the full article.

 Issues and Solutions E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Transportation Research Board; Laura Sandt October, 2022

Many communities with electric‐scooter (e‐scooter) programs have observed social, health, and environmental benefits; enhanced multimodal connections; and positive economic impacts (such as those derived by delivery services and couriers using e‐scooters and the resultant jobs created). However, these effects are often accompanied by real and perceived safety challenges. Read the full report.

Figure 1 Campus area with e-scooter speeds limited to 8 mph shown in pink overlay Impacts of Speed on Dockless Electric Scooters Jennifer Hall, Carolina Baumanis, Randy Machemehl September, 2022

E-scooters have been praised for being an answer to some classical mobility problems, like the last-mile problem, but have not been well-studied in terms of their risks and dangers. This report provides and overview of the typical ways geo-fencing can improve user safety, statewide rules regarding the implementation of geofencing for e-scooters, and an overview of cities that have implemented geofencing and any issues that they faced. Read the full report.

E-scooter equipped with light at an intersection at night The Emergence of Shared E-scooters: Prioritizing Safety Greg Harasym Summer 2022

Innovation continues to create efficient and sustainable means of travel. Among these alternative mobility choices are e-scooters. To accommodate for this burgeoning new transportation market, cities have been tasked with adopting new policies and regulations to promote safety and multi-modal integration. Read the full research brief.

Figure 1 showing a flowchart of participant recruitments and eligibility Characteristics and Risk Factors for Electric Scooter-Related Crashes and Injury Crashes among Scooter Riders: A Two-Phase Survey Study

Disi Tian, Andrew D. Ryan, Curtis M. Craig, Kelsey Sievert, Nichole L. Morris

August 2022 Electric scooters (or e-scooters) are among the most popular micromobility options that have experienced an enormous expansion in urban transportation systems across the world in recent years. Along with the increased usage of e-scooters, the increasing number of e-scooter-related injuries has also become an emerging global public health concern. However, little is known regarding the risk factors for e-scooter-related crashes and injury crashes. Read the full article.
Figure 1. showing 5 images of e-scooters parking in undesignated areas Congested sidewalks: The effects of the built environment on e-scooter parking compliance

Rob Hemphill; John MacArthur; Philip Longenecker; Garima Desai; Lillie Nie; Abbey Ibarra; Jennifer Dill

August, 2022 This article offers recommendations for policymakers and future research around the impacts of the built environment on electric scooter (e-scooter) parking. Learn more about the research and read the article.
Screenshot of the Micromobility Equity Evaluation tool providing an introduction, the purpose of the tool, and who should take the evaluation. Micromobility Equity Evaluation Tool University of Oregon, Greenlining Institute, National Institute for Transportation and Communities August, 2022 This evaluation tool lets equity program managers see their equity "score" as related to micromobility service in three key areas: process, implementation, and evaluation. Learn more about the research and the project here.
 a United States map with dots representing the shared micromobility programs surveyed in the study. Filters below the map let the user sort the programs by various criteria. Operationalizing Equity: US Micromobility Equity Requirements Dashboard University of Oregon, Greenlining Institute, National Institute for Transportation and Communities August, 2022 This dashboard reflects data from shared micromobility programs in the U.S., including detailed information about seven different equity requirements that they may impose: reduced fares, geographical distribution, adaptive vehicles, cash payment options, smartphone alternatives, targeted marketing and outreach, and multilingual services. Learn more about the research and the project here.
Home page of the micromodes.org website Micromodes.org University of North Carolina Highway Research Center August, 2022 Micromobility devices are increasing in popularity worldwide. However, because of the novelty of these devices, the fatality risk associated with these devices is unknown. The new website, micromodes.org, aims to improve the tracking of fatalities involving micromobility devices, starting with e-scooter fatalities. 
Opening page of the Electric Scooters and Bicyclist Injuries study in JAMA, August 2022 Characteristics of Electric Scooter and Bicycle Injuries After Introduction of Electric Scooter Rentals in Oslo, Norway

August Vincent Stray, Henrik Siverts, Knut Melhuus, et al

August, 2022 When society introduces and accepts new transportation modes, it is important to map risks and benefits. This cohort study is based on prospectively collected data on Norwegian patients who sustained e-scooter or bicycle injuries and presented to an emergency department affiliated with Oslo University Hospital between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020. Read the full study.
Insights from a pilot investigating the impacts of shared E-scooter use on physical activity using a single-case design methodology Rebecca L. Sanders, Vanessa da Silva Brum-Bastos, Trisalyn A.Nelson June, 2022

Shared e-scooters have recently emerged as a convenient, flexible transportation option for short trips in dozens of cities and on university campuses. While there is survey evidence that e-scooting replaces walking and bicycling trips, potentially impacting physical activity (PA) levels, little is known about how e-scooter use objectively affects PA and how e-scooter use affects individual travel options in ways that could influence planning for active transportation. This paper provides insights into the PA impacts of shared e-scooter use within a small sample of frequent e-scooter riders in the Phoenix, AZ, area. Read the paper.

Micromobility injury events: Motor vehicle crashes and other transportation systems factors Kevin Fang June, 2022 Potential safety issues have been one area of concern in policy debates over micromobility transportation. Existing research has mostly explored micromobility safety from a medical perspective. To inform transportation policy strategies to try and improve safety performance, this paper explores the circumstances in which injured micromobility riders sustained their injuries, with a focus on factors related to the transportation system. Read the paper.
Instrumented vehicles for the study, including a bicycle and a scooter A data-driven framework for the safe integration of micro-mobility into the transport system: Comparing bicycles and e-scooters in field trials.  Marco Dozza, Alessio Violin, Alexander Rasch. Chalmers University of Technology. March, 2022 E-scooters have become a familiar sight in cities worldwide in recent years, with many new companies renting them for use. But their arrival has also brought new safety concerns. Now, researchers present a framework for comparing how different micromobility vehicles, such as e-scooters, and bicycles move in cities, a methodology that can benefit companies and local authorities alike, and -- most importantly -- contribute to improving traffic safety. Learn more about the study.
Three Bird e-scooters lined up on a city sidewalk Scooting to a New Era in Active Transportation: Examining the Use and Safety of E-Scooters Currans, Kristina and Nicole Iroz-Elardo. University of Arizona. Ewing, Reid, University of Utah. March, 2022 In recent years, shared electric scooters (e-scooters) have taken cities around the world by storm. But how are people using this new mode of transportation? Seeking to understand the potential impacts of e-scooters on land use, infrastructure and sustainability goals, researchers have some new interesting data to share on e-scooter users, exploring the interplay between demographics, behaviors and trip purposes. Learn more about the study and read the report.
Bicyclist in front of a multistory building E-Bike Incentive Programs in North America Online Tracker John MacArthur and Cameron Bennett, Portland State University Transportation Research and Education Center. January, 2022 The E-Bike Incentive Programs in North America table tracks e-bike purchase incentive programs and key details that can provide a point of reference for the development of future e-bike incentive programs and policies, or for further research on the topic. Learn more.
 "Electric Scooter Survey Question Library" Electric Scooter Survey Question Library Yi Wen and Chris Cherry of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville January, 2022

To guide researchers in selecting and formulating survey questions, and to ensure the data collected from e-scooter surveys contributes to our broader understanding of e-scooter use and impacts, researchers from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a “survey of surveys,” developing categories of questions and offering recommended formulations for each question. This resource includes both the E-Scooter Survey Library and Recommended Survey Questions. Learn more here on the NUMO website.

E-scooter sharing and bike sharing systems: An individual-level analysis of factors affecting first-use and use frequency

Gina BlazaninaAupal MondalaKatherine E. AsmussenaChandra R. Bhatab

December 2021 In this paper, the authors develop a model to analyze first-use and use frequency of two micromobility modes: E-scooter sharing systems (ESS) and Bike-sharing systems (BSS). The model employs psycho-social constructs, built environment attributes, as well as individual-level demographics as determinants. . The main data source for this analysis is drawn from a 2019 survey of Austin, Texas area residents. The results highlight the importance of considering psycho-social attitudes to both gain better insights into the behavioral process leading up to ESS/BSS adoption/use as well as ensure an accurate data fit. Access the article. 
Understanding Micromobility Safety Behavior and Standardizing Safety Metrics for Transportation System Integration

C. Cherry, K. Harmon, L. Sandt, E. Martin, N. Shah, Y. Wen

December 2021

The purpose of this study is to accelerate shared learning around micromobility safety impacts and to fast track improvements to injury surveillance of emerging modes such as e-scooters and related micromobility
vehicles (e-bikes, electric skateboards, hoverboards, etc.) used on and around city streets. The primary aim was vehicles in shared mobility systems, but findings could be transferable to owned micromobility vehicles. Access the article.

What's the 'Big' Deal with Shared Micromobility? Evolution, Curb Policy, and Potential Developments in North America

Susan Shaheen; Adam Cohen; Jacquelyn Broader

December 2021 In this paper, the authors discuss the history, growth, and evolution of bike and scooter sharing in North America; summarize the demographics and impacts of shared micromobility; and explore shared micromobility policies and practices for managing devices and operations such as device caps, service area limitations, designated parking areas, fees, equipment/operational requirements, and enforcement. Access the article.
 Topic Guide - Safe Use of Micromobility Devices in Urban Areas Topic Guide: Safe Use of Micromobility Devices in Urban Areas European Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans December 2021 The Topic Guide is part of a compendium of EU guidance documents, complementing the revised second edition of the SUMP Guidelines. It proposes best practices and key recommendations on the integration of micromobility in urban mobility planning, with the goal of supporting cities in achieving a safer use of micromobility devices in urban areas.  Access the guide.
 Transport and Environment journal with black text on a white background and a curving green road Factors influencing shared micromobility services: An analysis of e-scooters and bikeshare Aryan Hosseinzadeh, Abolfazl Karimpour, and Robert Kluger November 2021 This study explores how factors, including weather, day of the week, holidays, and special events, influence the trip frequency of two micromobility modes, shared e-scooters and bikeshare, in Louisville, Kentucky. Access the article.
 Transit and Micromobility TCRP Research Report 230: Transit and Micromobility Colin Murphy, Terra Curtis, Evan Costagliola, Regina Clewlow, Stephanie Seki, and Ruoying Xu; Transit Cooperative Research Program; Transportation Research Board; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine October, 2021

This report provides an analysis of the full benefits and impacts of micromobility on public transportation systems in transit-rich markets as well as in medium-sized and smaller urban areas. The report includes case studies and lessons learned from different collaborations among cities, transit agencies, and micromobility companies. This report will provide public transit agencies with a reference on the benefits, impacts, and opportunities of micromobility to transit ridership and the built environment. Learn more and download the report.

Street level view of a person's feet kicking off on a scooter in a bike lane in the foreground, with a bicyclist just ahead in the background Micromobility, Equity and Sustainability: Summary and Conclusions International Transport Forum September, 2021 Micromobility offers cities an opportunity to address congestion, emissions and air quality. This report examines micromobility trends and reviews its benefits and social costs, with the aim to help develop governance frameworks and regulations that maximize the contribution of e-scooters, electric bikes and pedal bikes to more sustainable mobility and minimize any negative effects, particularly for pedestrians. Learn more and download the report.
Cover of the new NABSA Shared Micromobility State of the Industry Report 2nd Annual Shared Micromobility State of the Industry Report North American Bikeshare & Scootershare Association August, 2021 The 2020 NABSA report quantifies the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on shared micromobility and demonstrates the industry’s response and resilience during this time to provide essential mobility services. The report also compares trends from 2019 and presents new research that shows the impact of the industry in North America. Learn more and download the report.
Exploring Best Practice for Municipal E-Scooter Policy in the United States William Riggs, Matt Kawashima, David Batstone July, 2021

This paper evaluates commercial scooter deployment within municipalities in the United States and seeks to identify policy trends for regulating e-scooters. The study focuses on three specific policy strategies cities are implementing: the use of pilot programs; vendor limits or caps; and the inclusion of equity policy. The study finds that tension between these policies has the potential to constrain or accelerate the market adoption of scooters and that very few communities are designing and adopting environmental strategies to regulate scooter use. Read the paper.

First page of the E-Scooter Sharing and Bikesharing Systems report E-Scooter Sharing and Bikesharing Systems: An Individual-level Analysis of Factors Affecting First Use and Use Frequency
Blazanin, G, Mondal, A, Asmussen, K.E., and Chandra R. Bhat
July, 2021 Shared micromobility modes have increasingly penetrated the mobility environment of cities in the U.S. and the world over. At the same time, to best integrate these emerging modes within the fabric of the existing (and larger) transportation ecosystem, it is critical to understand how individuals may respond and “who” the likely users of these relatively new modes may be. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the first use and use frequency of two micromobility modes: E-scooter sharing systems (ESS) and Bike sharing systems (BSS). Read the technical paper.
Local Policy for Better Micromobility
Fuller, Sam Fitch, Dillon T. D'Agostino, Mollie Cohen 
June, 2021

The research aims to shed light on both the regulatory process and identify best practices for dockless bike and scooter sharing policy. Read the paper.

Figure 1 showing Temporal and spatial distribution of bicycle and e-scooter crashes Comparison of motor vehicle-involved e-scooter and bicycle crashes using standardized crash typology
Shah, Nitesh R., Aryal, Sameer, Wen, Yi, and Christopher R. Cherry
June, 2021 The market share of e-scooters in the United States has proliferated in cities: 86 million trips were made on shared e-scooters in 2019, a more than 100% increase compared to 2018. However, the interaction of e-scooters with other road users and infrastructure remains uncertain. Read the full article.
Data driven methods for effective micromobility parking
Ricardo Sandovala, Caleb Van Geffen, Michael Wilbur, Brandon Hall, Abhishek Dubey, William Barbour, Daniel B. Work
May, 2021

In this work, researchers propose a data-driven method to use proven clustering algorithms for establishing shared electric scooter (SES) parking locations and assessing their anticipated utilization. Read the full article.

Cover of Laryngoscope Journal Head and Neck Injuries and Electronic Scooter Use in the United States
Kappagantu, Aditi, Yaremchuk, Kathleen, and Samantha Tam.
May, 2021

The objective of this study was to quantify electric scooter injuries encountered in United States emergency departments, focusing on the head and neck, to understand the safety impact of these scooters to improve safe usage. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2019 of patients presenting to United States emergency departments with electric scooter injuries collected from a national database. About 2,823 cases of injuries were related to electric scooter use from January 2009 to December 2019. Read the full paper.

Cover page of the micromobility facility design guide showing bicyclist on a road and two women on scooters Micromobility Facility Design Guide
ITE Pedestrian and Bicycle Standing Committee
April, 2021 The launch of micromobility has exposed significant new challenges that must be addressed through policy, planning, design, and maintenance. Several organizations have addressed policy and planning considerations for micromobility vehicles, but facility design and maintenance guidance for micromobility vehicles remains limited. This document identifies potential design challenges that micromobility users experience as they travel on a typical roadway as well as the challenges other users of the roadway may face caused by micromobility users. Solutions with real-world examples are identified that accommodate micromobility and improve the roadway for all users. Learn more about the guide.
EscooterFatalities List of E-scooter Fatalities
Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety
April, 2021 This list of e-scooter fatalies was developed as about of a 2019 research study around micromobiliy behaviors and transportation metric integration.To learn more information about this study, please click here.
Figure from study showing a heatmap of frequent destinations by shared micromobility mode Explaining shared micromobility usage, competition and mode choice by modelling empirical data from Zurich, Switzerland
Reck, Daniel J., Haitao, He, Guidon, Sergio, and Ashausen, Kay W.
March, 2021 Shared micromobility services (e-scooters, bikes, e-bikes) have rapidly gained popularity in the past few years, yet little is known about their usage. While most previous studies have analyzed single modes, only few comparative studies of two modes exist and none so-far have analyzed competition or mode choice at a high spatiotemporal resolution for more than two modes. To this end, we develop a generally applicable methodology to model and analyze shared micromobility competition and mode choice using widely accessible vehicle location data. Read the paper.
Figure showing Transportation infrastructures on VT’s campus What type of infrastructures do e-scooter riders prefer? A route choice model
Wenwen Zhang; Ralph Buehler; Andrea Broaddus; Ted Sweeney
March, 2021 E-scooter is an innovative travel mode that meets the demand of many travelers. A lack of understanding of user routing preferences makes it difficult for policymakers to adapt existing infrastructures to accommodate these emerging travel demands. This study develops an e-scooter route choice model to reveal riders’ preferences for different types of transportation infrastructures, using revealed preferences data. Read the paper.
Graphic showing crash typology at an intersection for e-scooters and bicyclists Comparison of motor vehicle-involved e-scooter and bicycle crashes using standardized crash typology
Nitesh R. Shah; Sameer Aryal; Yi Wen; Christopher R. Cherry
March, 2021 The market share of e-scooters in the United States has proliferated in cities: 86 million trips were made on shared e-scooters in 2019, a more than 100% increase compared to 2018. However, the interaction of e-scooters with other road users and infrastructure remains uncertain. This study compares car-involved scooter crashes and bicycle crashes using standard typology. Read the paper.
Cover of the Role of Transit, Shared Modes & Public Policy report The Role of Transit, Shared Modes, and Public Policy in the New Mobility Landscape
Consensus Study by the Committee for the Role of Public Transportation and Mobility Management in an Era of New and Expanding Shared Mobility.
January, 2021 If combined with public transit and increased in scale, shared modes of transportation, such as ride-hailing, scooter sharing and bike sharing, can enhance mobility, equity, and sustainability in metropolitan areas. Cities, transit agencies, and shared mobility providers should collaborate in goal-setting, experimentation, testing, and implementation. These are among the findings in this TRB Special Report 337. Visit this page for a link to the report.
Location entry for San Francisco on BikePed Portal BikePed Portal
Transportation Research and Education Center (TREC), Portland State University
December, 2020 A national non-motorized count data archive, BikePed Portal provides a centralized standard count database for public agencies, researchers, educators, and other curious members of the public to view and download bicycle and pedestrian count data. It includes automated and manual counts from across the country, and supports screenline and turning movement counts.
Graph showing the Similarities and differences of MOD and MaaS. Next Generation Mobility Systems (Chapter 4, Energy Efficiency - Innovations: Driving Prosperity, Slashing Emissions)
Author(s): Susan, Shaheen; Adam, Cohen
November, 2020 In recent years, mobility on demand (MOD) is gaining popularity among mobility consumers. This innovative concept is based on the principle that transportation is a commodity where modes have economic values that are distinguishable in terms of cost, journey time, wait time, number of connections, convenience, and other attributes. MOD enables consumers to access mobility, goods and services on demand by dispatching or using shared mobility, delivery services and public transportation solutions through an integrated and connected multi-modal network. This chapter describes the different services that have emerged in the MOD ecosystem and the core enablers of MOD, such as stakeholders, business models and technology. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how MOD and vehicle automation could impact cities and the transportation network and their energy use. Click here for a link to the paper PDF.
Cover of Best Practices for the Public Management of Electric Scooters report Best Practices for the Public Management of Electric Scooters Reinhardt, Karl / Deakin, Elizabeth. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley October, 2020

This research projects evaluates the social, environmental, and safety impacts of shared electric scooters (e-scooters)’ through a literature review, a nationwide scan of state and local laws and regulations, and a case study of Oakland’s experience with e-scooters, including an analysis of the city’s user survey and our own in-depth interviews.

Severity of e-scooter rider injuries associated with trip characteristics Severity of e-scooter rider injuries associated with trip characteristics
Cicchino, Jessica B. / Kulie, Paige E. / McCarthy, Melissa L.
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
October, 2020 Many cities have implemented restrictions limiting e-scooter use on sidewalks or ordinances preventing them from accessing pedestrian areas. Neighborhood associations and advocacy groups have also pushed for more regulations. Although E-scooter rider injuries have been growing, there is not a lot of information on how trip characteristics contribute to their severity. Authors identify the most common locations that these injuries take place and look into the characteristics of these trips in relation to the severity of the injury. Click here for a link to the paper pdf.
Injuries related to electric scooter and bicycle use in a Washington, DC, emergency department Injuries related to electric scooter and bicycle use in a Washington, DC, emergency department
Cicchino, Jessica B. / Kulie, Paige E. / McCarthy, Melissa L.
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
October, 2020

 The use of E-scooters in the U.S. has grown rapidly in recent years. E-scooter popularity has been aligned with an increase in the popularity of cycling as well. Researchers are curious to find out more about how these different forms of transportation influence policy. Should cycling be the benchmark to determine safety expectations regarding e-scooters? Click here for a link to the paper pdf.

Are Shared Vehicles Shared by All? A Review of Equity and Vehicle Sharing

Are shared vehicles shared by all? A review of equity and vehicle sharing Journal of Planning Literature (2020)

Jennifer Dill, Portland State University Nathan McNeil, Portland State University 2020 Vehicle-sharing services (bikeshare, carshare, e-scooters) offer the potential to improve mobility and accessibility for disadvantaged populations. This paper reviews research related to equity and vehicle sharing, focusing on race/ethnicity, income, gender, age, and disability. The authors found evidence of disparities in the use of shared vehicles, which is only partly explained by a lack of physical proximity. Some studies reveal additional barriers to use, particularly for bike-sharing. More research on barriers is necessary, particularly for carsharing. Authors identified several programs aimed at reducing barriers, though evidence of their impact is necessary to inform practice. Click here for a link to the paper pdf.
Micromobility Modes, New Codes Micromobility Modes, New Codes! Collaborative Sciences Center for Road Safety  September, 2020 The flyer is one of the deliverables developed as a part of a research project focused on understanding micromobility behaviors and standardizing safety messages for transportation system integration. It includes a list of codes categorizing injuries related to emerging transportation. Check out the flyer here. Click here for more information about the project. 
 Transportations New Disruptor Understanding and Tackling Micromobility: Transportation's New Disruptor Governors Highway Safety Association August, 2020 This report explores six challenges: oversight, funding, data collection, enforcement, infrastructure, and education - and the role State Highway Safety Offices (SHSO) and their partners can play to help address them.
Micromobility Products-Related Deaths, Injuries, and Hazard Patterns Micromobility Products-Related Deaths, Injuries, and Hazard Patterns: 2017-2019 James Tark, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission August, 2020 This report provides the latest available statistics on injury estimates, fatalities and hazard patterns associated with three different types of micromobility: e-scooters, e-bikes, and hoverboards. The time frame covered is 2017-2019. Access the report.
Shared Mobility Accessibility Study

Shared Mobility Accessibility Study

City of Oakland Department of Transportation  June, 2020 The study provides insight into the Adaptive Bikeshare Pilot program in Oakland as well as evaluating the accessibility of other shared mobility services in Oakland and the identification of new ways to expand access to services for individuals with disabilities. To better understand the various needs of the city, the study draws from technical analysis and live experiences from residents of Oakland. To read more, click here. 
Steering New Mobility in the Right Direction Steering New Mobility in the Right Direction: Matching the Speed of Technology with the Speed of Local Government National Institute for Transportation and Communities June 4, 2020

This report examines the ways in which new mobility -- including shared mobility devices, app-based ride-hailing, and autonomous vehicles -- are impacting cities. The report is to act as a guide for city staff on adopting effective policy and code to respond to new technology while encouraging their responsible use. 

Lime Article

Lime Debuts Sidewalk Detection as their Latest Innovation to Improve Scooters for all

Lime 2nd Street January 28, 2020 In January 2020, Lime and the City of San José launched a pilot program featuring sidewalk detection technology to reduce e-scooters riding on sidewalks. Lime’s new technology collects data on speed, acceleration, the vibration of underlying surfaces detected through an AI model in order to produce 95% accuracy of sidewalk detection. If 50% or more of the ride was on the sidewalk, users receive a push notification. Next steps on improving the technology are being explored.
Caltrans DRISI Research Paper PI 0246 Analyzing the Potential of Geofencing for Electric Bicycles and Scooters in Public Right of Way CalTrans DRIS January 17, 2020 In an effort to analyze the potential for geofencing e-bikes and e-scooters in the public right-of-way, a survey was conducted and distributed to AASHTO and various jurisdictions about agency experience. Geofencing is a virtual geographic boundary that restricts micromobility from operating in certain areas and limits speed. Certain cities require rental companies to use geofencing as a part of their permit program. There are varying results with overall consistent capabilities depending on the ping rate, GPS accuracy, and other factors.
Impact of E-Scooters on Pedestrian Safety Research Paper Impact of Urban Micromobility Technology on Pedestrian and Rider Safety: A Field Study Using Pedestrian Crowd-Sensing Anindya Maiti, Nisha Vinayaga-Sureshkanth, Murtuza Jadliwala, Raveen Wijewickrama, Greg P. Griffin May 12, 2020 As a continuous part of studying the impact of micromobility, this paper explores passively crowd-sensed real-time encounter data between e-scooters and pedestrian participants by capturing Bluetooth Low Energy signals onboard commercial e-scooters. Through this method, researchers identified potentially unsafe spatiotemporal zones for pedestrians through encounter statistics and mobility trends.
Micromobility Evolution and Expansion

Micromobility Evolution and Expansion: Understanding How Docked and Dockless Bikesharing Models Complement and Compete - A Case Study of San Francisco

Jessica Lazarus, Jean Carpentier Pourquier, Frank Feng, Henry Hammel, Susan Shaheen April, 2020 This research paper examines how docked bikesharing and dockless e-bikesharing models complement and compete with respect to user travel behaviors. Through a case study of San Francisco, the research reveals the complementarity of Ford GoBikes docked bikesharing and JUMP dockless e-bikesharing systems. Ford GoBikes were more often used for short, flat commute trips, while JUMP leaned towards longer, elevation change trips. Station density and bike rack density were significant positive factors in destination choices for each set of users. 
Impeding Access Research Paper Impeding Access: The Frequency and Characteristics of Improper Scooter, Bike, and Car Parking Anne Brown, Nicholas J. Klein, Calvin Thigpen, Nicholas Williams March, 2020 This study simultaneously investigates the parking violations of micromobility and motor vehicles. With the proliferation of app-based ride-hailing and goods and food delivery services, curb space has become a contested property for cities to re-evaluate. The findings indicate that despite the negative perception of micromobility parking habits, commercial vehicles account for a disproportionate share of parking violations. As the use of micromobility increases and cities reconsider their parking policies, it is important for cities to broaden their scope to include both micromobility and motor vehicles for a comprehensive approach to ensure public right-of-way.
Shared Micromobility Policy Toolkit Shared Micromobility Policy Toolkit: Docked and Dockless Bike and Scooter Sharing Susan Shaheen and Adam Cohen April, 2019 This toolkit outlines policies and practices for cities integrating shared micromobility into their built environment. It is largely divided into four sections. The first defines shared micromobility and identifies its impact. The second describes micromobility users and market potential. The third explores shared micromobility policies and best practices through case studies. Lastly, there is a section summarizing the key findings from the toolkit. 
Micromobility in Cities Micromobility in Cities: A History and Policy Review National League of Cities April 25, 2019 The National League of Cities has detailed the history and policy overview of micromobility in cities as the industry experienced sustained growth through 2019, resulting in both opportunities and various challenges. The report includes a history of micromobility, case studies from cities across the United States, and recommendations for local leaders. 
The Micromobility Revolution The Micromobility Revolution: The Introduction and Adoption of Electric Scooters in the United States TRB Committee ADB40 January, 2019 The TRB Standing Committee on Transportation Demand Forecasting published this paper with the goal of sharing new findings on adoption, utilization, and impacts of private mobility services. The paper explores the early perception of e-scooters, which experienced rapid investment and growth in cities across the United States. A large-scale survey of eleven major cities with statistically representative sampling was conducted to assess the adoption, use, and perceptions of new mobility services.